Have until… to怎么理解?

have什么意思?是和to一起的吗?

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You have to turn in your modern history essays until next week.

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Hi 牪!

saane 给出的这句,是与原句大体语义相通的。

  1. 感谢坛友们分享的 COBUILD grammar,最大特点真实、用词友好(无默认前后文依赖和读者知识水平依赖)。
  2. 其4.3节指出,两句间的细小的差异性,即时间状语提前表示强调时间信息。

Collins COBUILD Grammar 4th, position of time adverbial § 4.3

Time adverbials normally come at the end of a clause, after the verb or after its object if there is one. You can put more focus on the time by placing the adverbial at the beginning of the clause.

  • We’re getting married next year.
  • Next year, the museum is expecting even more visitors.
  • I was playing golf yesterday.
  • Yesterday the atmosphere at the factory was tense.

If the time adverbial is an adverb, it can also come immediately after be or after the first auxiliary in a verb phrase.

  • She is now pretty well-known in this country.
  • Cooper had originally been due to retire last week.
  • Public advertisements for the post will soon appear in the national press.

参考:

  1. 英语的「have to」表示必要性,语言学是怎么解释这一用法的? - 知乎

句中have是和to一起的,即熟知的have to do sth. 结构,之间插入until next week意在强调交作业的时间节点“下周前”。

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一:插入位置、对象及强调否

根据上面知乎链接中博士们的分享,我好像半明白了,have to 的 have 失去本义而演化成与to表示新的义成了“不得不” 。

两个动词记作v,时间状语记作T。T插入v时有三种位置:vvT, vTv, Tvv.

  1. You have to turn in your modern history essays until next week.
  2. You have until next week to turn in your modern history essays. (时间在文序中提前表强调)
  3. Until next week you have to turn in your modern history essays. (时间在文序中提前表强调)

当然这是语法上的规定。对应这句语义有点奇怪,我们换成“你不得不做核酸检测”就法义可以一致了。前两种模式理解很平常,只说第三种的意思“在下周之前,你不得不做核酸检测。(到了下周就不用做了)”

  • T限定哪个对象?
    • 向后找最近的动词,若有就是那个动词,若没有就是向前找最近的动词。
    • 第1种限制 turn in 的时间,不强调时间(所以强调动作)。
    • 第2种限制 turn in 的时间,且文序中提前时间来强调。
    • 第3种限制 have to 的时间,且文序中提前时间来强调。

二:before 还是 until

对于until,我认为其用法必要条件是:

  1. 持续的用法(介词或连词)
    1. 不管是持续动词而带来的肯定状态的持续
    2. 或是任意动词,但其没发生,这种否定状态的持续

所以这里可改成

  • You have before next week to turn in your modern history essays.

  • You don’t need to turn in your modern history essays until next week. (语法符合,但语义异)。

  • You can not turn in your modern history essays until next week. (语法符合,但语义异)。

参考:

  1. Until Definition & Meaning - Merriam-Webster
  2. https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/until
  3. Collins COBUILD Grammar 4th, § 4.140
  4. Collins COBUILD Usage, page 541
  5. Practical English Usage 4th, §613

能用一句话讲清楚一般不用说两句以上。

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"until next week".position = f(isEmphasis, pOfVobj, pOfObjOfVobj)
= {return  isEm ?
        pOfVobj:
        pOfObjOfVobj ? 
            pOfObjOfVobj+1:
            pOfVobj + 1}

"until".isWithNegative ? 
    null :
    "until".isVobjContinuous ?
        null :
        "until".replaceWith("before")

不是为了看得清楚的话,这就是两句话,应该能符合saane兄的要求了。 :laughing:

you have essay.

SVO结构

你想表达什么?

hey, what’s up bro!
怎么了老兄,我正在吃饭呢,随意聊聊,我觉得爱吹牛兄弟的截图是简单的avo结构。当然我也愿意一起学习。

而且我确定我没有使用“cunningham’s law"

好像你不少留言都夹枪带着棒的,生活中话有什么不顺利的吗?:pleading_face::pleading_face:

你说的话很多没头没尾,于是我就问你,跟其他无关。